health, medicine

Careers In Medicine Part-2

  • Study Routes:
  • An entrance exam after science in 10+2 is necessary to get admission in one of the medical colleges listed below. Followed by a four and a half year MBBS program which makes you a general practitioner. Next is a one-year internship.
  • For an MD or an MS i.e. specialization there is another 2-year program, which can be taken up only after qualifying an exam. More than 70% of all MBBS graduates try for postgraduate qualifications, rather than going in for a job or practice. Choice can be any one of the large number of subjects studied during MBBS course– Surgery, Medicine, Microbiology, Dermatology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Psychiatry, Paediatrics, Otolaryngology, Biochemistry, Radiology, Ophthalmology, Pathology, Orthopaedic Surgery, Physiology, Anatomy and Preventive Medicine.
  • Finally there is super-specialisation as Neurosurgeon, Paediatric surgeon, Cardiologist, Nephrologist, Gastroenterologist, Cardiothoracic surgeon, Genito-urinary surgeon, and Plastic and Reconstructive surgeon.
  • India- Best Places to Study (Rankings – May 2007):
  • AIIMS, New Delhi
  • CMC, Vellore
  • AFMC, Oune
  • JIPMER, Pondicherry
  • Seth GS Medical College, Mumbai
  • Maulana Azad Medical College, Delhi
  • King Georges Medical University, Lucknow
  • Kastirba Medical College, Manipal
  • St. Johns, Bangalore
  • Grants Medical College, Mumbai
  • LMT Medical College, Sion, Mumbai
  • Institute of Medical Sciences, BHU, Varanasi
  • BJ Medical College, Pune
  • Bangalore Medical College, Pune
  • Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Kochi
  • Madras Medical College, Chennai
  • Osmania Medical College, Hyderabad
  • Calcutta Medical College, Calcutta
  • Stanley Medical College, Chennai
  • Christian Medical College, Ludhiana
  • Government Medical College, Mysore
  • Gandhi Medical College, Hyderabad
  • University College of Medical Sciences, Delhi
  • BJ Medical College, Ahmedabad
  • Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Belgaum

Other places include





Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam

Visakhapatnam 530002

63413, 61157



Deccan College Of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad

P.O. Kanchan Bag, Hyderabad 500258

239225, 239547




Osmania Medical College, Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500195

45692, 42936



Guahati Medical College, Guwahati,  Guwahati 781032




Darbhanga Medical College, Darbhanga,  Laher Sarai 846003, Darbhanga

33228, 33190



Patna Medical College, Patna, Patna 800004




Mgm Medical College, Jamshedpur 831012




Rajendra Medical College, Ranchi, P.O. Bariatau, Ranchi 834009




Government Med. College, Chandigarh

690338, 6904412



Lady Hardinge Med. College, Bhagat Singh Marg, N. Delhi 110001

3343984, 3363728


 130 / NIL

Maulana Azad Med. College, Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg, N. Delhi 110002



180 / 20

3. University College Of Med. Sciences, 3. Shahdara, Delhi 110032



100 / NIL

All India Institute Of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, N.Delhi 110029

661123, 6864851

FAX : 6862663



Goa Medical College, Panaji,  Panaji 403001

225727, 224441




Goverment Medical College, Bhavnagar,  Sir T. Hospital Campus, Dr. H. Vaidya Road, Kalanala, Bhavnagar 364002

422011, 430808



Maharaja Agrasen Inst. Of Medical Research & Education, Agroha

Agroha 125047, Haryana

45176, 45193

FAX : 3268236



Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla,  Shimla 172001




Government Medical College, Srinagar,  Bakshi Nagar, Jammu 180001

46824, 43996



Medical College, Kottayam, …


A Medication That Promotes Wakefulness

The active ingredient in Provigil is Modafinil. Inactive ingredients include: lactose, microcrystalline, cellulose, pregelatinized starch, croscarmellose sodium, povidone and magnesium stearate. Sleepiness significantly increases the potential for compromised attention, impaired cognition, lengthened reaction time, and negative mood. Provigil is a drug that helps to increase an individual’s daytime alertness. It is used to improve wakefulness in patients with narcolepsy, sudden uncontrollable attacks of day time sleepiness obstructive sleep apnea or hypopnea syndrome or in patients with shift work sleep disorder. You should be diagnosed with one of these sleep disorders before taking Provigil, since sleepiness can be a symptom of other medical conditions. Provigil may also be used to treat other conditions as determined by your doctor.  Provigil is used for performance enhancement apart from promoting wakefulness in an individual. It also enhances short-term memory and lets the user stay awake for extended periods. The exact mechanism by which Provigil increases wakefulness in an individual is not known. At present, Provigil (Modafinil) is the only FDA-approved prescription medicine for the treatment of hyper – somnias and excessive sleepiness associated with OSAHS and SWSD (Shift Work Sleep Disorder). The American Academy of Sleep Medicine considers Provigil (Modafinil) the standard treatment for sleepiness in narcolepsy.  Narcolepsy is caused by dysfunction of a family of wakefulness-promoting and sleep-suppressing peptides, the orexins. Orexin neurons are activated by Provigil (Modafinil). Orexinergic neurons are found exclusively in the lateral hypothalamic area. Narcoleptics suffer profound disturbances in normal sleeping patterns and variable degrees of depression. These symptoms can be reversed with Generic Provigil (Modafinil). Depressives who feel sleepy and fatigued on SSRIs can supplement their routine with Provigil (Modafinil). Provigil is approved only for use by adults and children over the age of 16. It should only be taken by those suffering from sleep disorders. The United States FDA has classified Provigil (Modafinil) a Schedule IV drug (low abuse potential.

Provigil (Modafinil) is occasionally used to treat depression related to fatigue (and fatigue due to depression), which are two Multiple Sclerosis (MS) symptoms that often appear together and can aggravate each other so that both the fatigue and depression become worse if both are not treated. Just recently, Provigil (Modafinil) was shown to improve nocturnal enuresis (which is the involuntary discharge of urine during sleep at night) in people with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). If you are taking Provigil (Modafinil) l to treat sleepiness caused by obstructive sleep apnea, you may also be treated with a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) machine. This machine is an air pump connected to a mask that gently blows pressurized air into your nose while you sleep. The pump does not breathe for you, but the gentle force of air helps keep your airway open to prevent obstruction. Provigil, like other stimulants, has the potential for abuse. It can alter your mood, perception, thinking, and feelings, providing an artificial “lift” and potentially leading to a certain degree of dependence (although discontinuation of the drug does not produce physical withdrawal symptoms).

Provigil is …


Health Benefits of Eating Sunflower Seeds

Several cultures have enjoyed sunflower seeds for thousands of years. Harvested from tall sunflowers, the seeds can be eaten raw, roasted, or used for flavor and texture in a variety of meals. Today, they’re often eaten as a healthy snack between meals, providing an energy boost in a convenient package. Despite this, many people are unfamiliar with the benefits of eating sunflower seeds. In this article, you’ll learn how the seeds are a powerful source of vitamins, minerals and other nutrients. Plus, we’ll explain how sunflowers seeds can even have a mild relaxing effect on your brain.

A Rich Source Of Vitamin E

Vitamin E is an essential component of your daily nutrition. It’s an antioxidant that stops the rampant spread of free radicals within your body. Because free radicals can cause cellular damage, having a source of Vitamin E is critical. Sunflower seeds are rich in Vitamin E and can help your circulatory system function properly. It also allows your blood to clot more readily when your body sustains external wounds, aiding the healing process. Other benefits include a lower risk of developing heart disease and diabetes.

Dietary Fiber For Easy Digestion

Sunflower seeds are a bountiful source of dietary fiber. A deficiency in daily fiber consumption leads to a host of health problems. While the recommended amount of fiber is approximately 30 grams per day, most people fail to consume more than 15 grams per day. This can cause digestive problems which leads to increasing toxicity within your intestines. By eating sunflower seeds, you can take advantage of a powerful supply of the dietary fiber your body needs. Doing so can reduce the likelihood of cancer, lower your cholesterol levels and aid your body’s elimination process.

Protein, Carbohydrates And More

One of the reasons why many athletes enjoy eating sunflower seeds is that they provide a supply of protein and carbohydrates. Both are important for maintaining energy levels while training or competing. The seeds can also stimulate the liver to release glycogen into the bloodstream. Because glycogen is a form of sugar, this provides an additional boost of quick energy.

Your body also requires a store of minerals in order to function properly. Sunflower seeds are a heavily-laden resource of magnesium, potassium, selenium, zinc and iron. Each of these has inherent health benefits. While magnesium lowers your blood pressure (and thereby, reduces the chances of a heart attack), selenium can aid in repairing cellular damage while slowing the spread of cancerous cells. Meanwhile, iron helps to distribute oxygen to your muscles and zinc provides your immune system with the boost it needs to defend against common colds.

Sunflower Seeds For The Brain

Most people don’t realize that sunflower seeds can actually have a calming effect on your brain. This is due to high levels of tryptophan contained within the seeds. When you consume foods that have tryptophan, it effectively increases your brain’s production of serotonin (a neurotransmitter). High levels of serotonin reduce tension which creates a relaxing effect.…


Why Start a Business in the Fitness Industry?

Starting a business in the fitness industry can be a profitable and enjoyable endeavor. There are many different types of businesses that you can start in this niche market. You will need to do research and learn about fitness and general wellness to succeed.
Become a Trade Show Vendor:

A trade show vendor is an excellent way to travel and enjoy the fitness industry world. You can merge with a wholesale supplier that will allow you to sell their fitness products at trade shows. Research and find trade shows that are in your local area to set up exhibits. Even though people do not always buy at the trade shows, it is an excellent way to gather contacts and potential customers.

Many trade shows offer free seminars, guest speakers, and other fun activities related to the trade show theme. You not only get to make money with the trade show exhibitions, but you can also learn more about the fitness industry in general by participating in the events.

Become a Fitness Products Reviewer:
Starting a business as a fitness products reviewer is very simple. In fact, it is so simple that many people completely overlook this opportunity. During your spare time, you can read about and even test fitness products. Your next step is to write a review of the product and submit it to online companies that pay people for reviews.

For a good fitness product review, you will want to include average price for the product. What did you like about the product? What did you not like about the product? What were the features of the product? Where do you find the product on the market?

The average review is between 300 to 500 words. If you have a flair for writing and are already in the fitness industry, starting business as a product reviewer is fun and rewarding.

Become a Fitness Products Distributor:
Starting business as a fitness products distributor requires some initial investment for the products. Typically if you are going to be a distributor you can purchase the products at wholesale prices and in bulk quantity.

There are many ways to distribute fitness products. For example, you can join an affiliation program. Another method is to sell fitness products to local gyms in your area. You can even visit spas and resorts to distribute fitness equipment.

You can also join an affiliate program with a reputable company to become a fitness product distributor. You will need to purchase items ahead of time and can make residual income streams if you select several company’s affiliation programs.

Starting business in the fitness industry can be extremely profitable. You do not have to limit yourself to strictly one type of business, but you can even do several at a time. For example, you can write product reviews and submit to buyers during the evening hours or on your laptop while you are working as a trade show exhibitor.

As the old saying goes, when starting business for …

health, medicine

Decisions About Bioethical Dilemmas Of Healthcare Practice

Ethical dilemmas are more frequent in health care, primarily because of the remarkable advances in medicine and technology. Health practitioners are now able to diagnose and treat illnesses that were lethal a decade ago. The growing understanding of human genetics has also created new and unique dilemmas. Concerns about patient choice, quality of life, and access to health care are also becoming more frequent and complex. As a result, health care professionals face an increasing number of issues for ethical decision-making.

Some research suggests that nurses do not always have a clear understanding of their role in ethical concerns. They may not know how ethical decisions are made and may feel powerless when faced with ethical dilemmas (Zink, & Titus 1996). Decision makers of healthcare practices find themselves in ethical dilemmas when they must choose between courses of action that are based on different moral frameworks, varying organizational philosophies, or conflicting duties or moral principles (Darr, 1997). Although in some cases reasonable people can be strongly committed to different courses of action, in most ethical dilemmas the various players can reach consensus despite cultural or religious differences (Darr, 1997). Decisions of this nature are most times painful and much contemplation is required. Differing ethical theories do not necessarily conflict, and people following diverse philosophies may reach the same conclusions via different reasoning (Darr, 1997).  People have opinions and these opinions are what give people a way to express themselves. If people did not have differences of opinions about particular situation, there would be no ethical dilemma (Ecker, 1996). More and more people have recognized the importance of bioethics in health care settings. Ethics committees are an important resource for patients and providers in all healthcare settings, including home health, long-term care, psychiatric facilities, clinics, and hospitals (Beauchamp & Childress, 1994).  Ethics committees focus on education, policy development, and clinical consultation on ethical issues. They review decisions and develop policies and procedures about important issues such as informed consent and limitation of treatment.

Nurses and Decisions about Ethical Dilemmas

Ethical decisions are inherent in the daily practice of nurses and other healthcare practitioners and are critical to the care being delivered to patients. Several notable studies have been conducted in recent years about nurses and ethical practice. For example, a study done by the American Nurses Association found that 79 percent of those responding said they faced ethical issues daily or weekly (Zink, & Titus, 1997). A high percentage of nurses said they faced ethical dilemmas “frequently.”  Other studies document areas in which nursing needs to strengthen its role in ethical practice. One study revealed that nurses have a relatively low level of ethical sensitivity to issues other than patient autonomy. The study found that approximately twenty-five (25 %) percent of a sample of nurses failed to define or defined incorrectly the term ethical dilemma. Of those who did define it correctly, only forty (40%) percent used a conceptual definition (Oddi,  Cassidy, & Fisher, 1995). Others defined ethical dilemmas in specific …

fitness, health

Health Benefits – Gymnastics

Gymnastics workouts are good ways to increase fitness and burn body fat. Gymnastics improves the calories burned it will also burn fat-tissues if teamed with a controlled diet. It will also help mature your muscles to get fit and in shape. Best of all it is a fun exercise.

there are many great health benefits to gymnastics. Most benefits are physical but there are many more that are emotional and developmental, these thing are what make the time and energy worth while. Because of the determined character of gymnastics, it gives you the ability to get yourself into awesome physical shape. Gymnastics is a gradual process of conditioning your body.

Benefits of Gymnastics

Gymnastics gives so many great thing from strength and fitness to flexibility and coordination as well as confidence and discipline. Here are many of the things that gymnastics will treat you:

* Hard work ethic- you can only learn skills by working at them over and over

* Determination – Some skills are hard to learn but by continuing to try it gets easier

* Fitness – workouts are full of different activities that will keep you fit

* Confidence – by learning new skills in varying events it helps you see what you can do

* Flexibility – By stretching and moving all the time this becomes easier and limits injuries

* Coordination – this is obtained by learning movements and combining them in a routine

* Strength- moving and lifting your own body during the activities will help build this

* Discipline – Rules are very important and in this routine it will keep you safe

All of these are great characteristics to have, and if you want to learn or achieve any of these gymnastics is a great place to start.

Gymnastics For The Kids

Gymnastics is better for children that most people would know. With child obesity at a high rank of 13% of kids and adolescents in the U.S, Getting the young ones away from t.v and video games and to a gym is a great start on a healthy life. involved parents and exercise programs that keep kids active, reduce the chance of having an obese child. Gymnastics is a good thing for children because it uses strength, flexibility, speed, balance, coordination, power, and discipline.

In Reality Is Gymnastics Best For Your Health and Weight Loss

Because it helps burn fat, a regular workout such as gymnastics contributes to enhance your health. It helps with weight control, therefore keeping healthy cholesterol levels and blood pressure. A regular workout also releases endorphins (the happiness chemicals that improve mood). Most-likely gymnastics would probably be better for your kids than yourself, but its still an awesome way to stay in shape if you have time for it. Not the best way to lose weight, it is still a great way to gain flexibility.


What are the Health Benefits of Tomatoes?

How many health benefits can a small fruit provide? Well, in the case of the tomato, numerous health benefits can be attributed to this particular fruit. Tomatoes are loaded with countless health properties that aid in reducing and preventing some of the most life threatening diseases.

First of all, tomatoes contain four major carutenoids: alpha carotene, beta carotene, lutein, and lycopene. All of these carutenoids have individual health benefits and they offer great health advantages when they all work together. The red pigment contained in the tomatoes is Lycopene. Lycopene is one of the strongest antioxidants and it is very beneficial when it comes down to neutralizing free radicals which damage the cells in the body. Lycopene is also very beneficial when it comes down to heart health, prostate health and pancreatic health. A study has shown that men, who consumed ten tomatoes per week, reduced their chances of developing prostate cancer by an overwhelming forty-five percent. Other studies indicated that people who consumed more than seven servings of raw tomatoes lowered their risk of developing stomach, rectal or colon cancers by sixty percent.

The prevention of lung cancer is yet another health benefit of consuming tomatoes. Recent studies show that tomatoes contain two important compounds, coumaric acid and chlorogenic acid. These two compounds block some of the carcinogens that are found in tobacco. When these carcinogens are blocked, our bodies are protected from second hand smoke and we are less likely to develop lung cancer. And last but certainly not least, tomatoes are extremely rich in potassium, something that many of us lack in our daily diets. For instance, a single cup of tomato juice contains 534 milligrams of potassium. Clearly, with all of these health benefits, many of us should incorporate more tomatoes into our diets.…

fitness, health

The Importance Of Fitness

Did you know that if you are physically inactive that you increase your risk of heart disease by the same amount as if you smoked ?

In the UK it is estimated that 70% of the adult population can be classed as physically inactive. In the US 60% of adults do not participate in the recommended level of physical activity & 25% are not active at all.

In Australia 33% of the population are said to be so inactive that they gain no health benefits at all & the risk to the community from their physical inactivity, and therefore lack of fitness, is great.

For thousands of years physical activity and your level of fitness have been linked to good health. Due to the advance of science in this day & age this link can be proven, with overwhelming evidence that people who lead active lifestyles are less likely to die early or to experience major illnesses such as heart disease, diabetes & colon cancer.

Fitness is therefore a major, if not the major, factor in the type of health you are likely to enjoy. Regular
exercise will improve your level of fitness and improve the way you look and feel. In conjunction with a balanced

diet regular activity can help you maintain a healthy weight. It can even increase self confidence and reduce the risk of depression.

In order to maintain ones fitness it is recommended that you should use up approx 200 calories per day for most days of the week. This equates to 30 minutes of exercise which can be all in one go or even in 3 10 minute stints.

Here are some suggestions to help maintain your fitness.

Walk up the stairs (even part of the way) instead of taking the elevator.
Walk up moving escalators.
For short journeys leave the car and walk.
Do the house work at twice the speed.
Try DIY such as painting or do some gardening such as raking the leaves.
Get off the bus or subway a couple of stops early and walk the rest of the way.

Here are some benefits you will get from improved fitness through exercise.

Increased levels of HDL or “good” cholesterol.
Lower high blood pressure.
Help improve body composition by burning fat.
Promote healthy blood sugar levels.
Promote bone density.
Boost the immune system.
Improve mood and reduce the chance of depression.

Improving your level of fitness needn’t be hard work, find some activity that you enjoy, maybe with your partner, family or friends. Stay motivated, keep a diary of your activities so you can look back and see how far you have come. Post inspirational quotes or stories at work or around the home. Set goals, both long and short term, rather than say you want to be fit for the summer, commit to going to the gym or aerobic class at least once a week.

Goals should be SMART
Time based

Picture where you want to be, …