health, medicine

Health Care Systems Around The World: Spain’s Health Care System

Health care is guaranteed

Spain’ national health care system operates on a highly decentralized basis, giving primary responsibility to the country’s 17 regions.  The Spanish Constitution guarantees all citizens the “right” to health care- including equal access to preventative, curative, and rehabilitative services.  Coverage under the Spanish system is nearly universal, estimated at 98.7% of the population.  The federal government provides each region with a block grant.  The money is not earmarked – the region decides how to use it. 

Physicians are assigned

Spanish patients cannot choose their physicians, either primary care or specialist.  Rather, they are assigned a primary care doctor from a list of physicians in their community.  If more specialized care is needed, the primary care physician refers patients to a network of specialists. One may not go “out of network” unless the patient has private health insurance.  This has sparked an interesting phenomenon whereby sick Spaniards move in order to change physicians or find networks with shorter waiting list.

 Waiting times are inevitable

Waiting lists vary from region to region but are a significant problem everywhere.  On average, Spaniards wait 65 days to see a specialist, 71 days to wait for a gynecologist, and 81 days for a neurologist.  The mean waiting time for a prostectomy is 62 days and for hip replacement surgery is 123 days.  Some health services that US citizens take for granted are almost totally unavailable.  For example, rehabilitation, convalescence, and care for those with terminal illness are usually left to the patient’s relatives.  There are few public nursing and retirement homes, and few hospices and convalescence homes.

Private health care and insurance is growing

As with most other national health care systems, the waiting lists and quality problems have led to the development of a growing private insurance alternative. About 12% of the population currently has private health insurance.  Overall, private insurance payments amount for 21% of total health care expenditures.  More commonly, Spaniards pay for care outside of the national health care system out of pocket. In fact, nearly 24% of health care spending in Spain is out of pocket – more than any European country except Greece and Switzerland, and even more than the United States.  Here again, a two-tier system has developed, with the wealthy able to buy their way around the defects of the national health care system, and the poor consigned to substandard services.

Modern medical technologies are in short supply

There are also shortages of modern medical technologies.  Spain has one-third as many MRI units per million people as the US and just over one-third as many CT units, and fewer lithotripters.  Some regions, like Ceuta and Melilla do not have a single MRI unit.  All hospital-based physicians and approximately 75% of all other physicians are considered quasi-civil servants and are paid a salary rather than receiving payment based on services provided.  As a result Spain has fewer physicians and fewer nurses per capita than most European countries and the US.

Mostly, Spaniards are happy

medicine

What Are The Pros And Cons Of Liquid Medicines Over Tablets And Pills?

Every person needs to take medicine at some point in their life and the normal format usually comes in the form of a pill or a capsule. Patients who find it difficult to take medication, like very young patients or older patients are given liquid forms of the medication. Most people are aware of the liquid OTC analgesic formulations for babies and toddlers, as well as the liquid cold and flu remedies marketed for adults, but few realize that it is possible to obtain alternative formulations for many prescription drugs when the patient has trouble swallowing pills. As always, when taking any medications, whether they are sold by prescription or over the counter, care must be taken to make sure that there will not be any adverse side effects when two or more medications are taken concurrently. You always need to tell your physician and pharmacist about any medicines you are currently taking.

Normally, individuals who take their medications in the form of pills or capsules do not have any difficulties in swallowing the medicine. These may come in several different sizes that range from fairly small to others that are rather big. Sometimes patients have trouble swallowing because of a condition called dysphagia. This condition may develop when one is young and persist throughout life, or it may develop later in life, brought on by an illness or condition that impacts the ability to swallow. When this happens, the best thing to do is to consult with the physician or pharmacist to find out if the prescribed medication comes in a different form, such as a liquid, that would be easier to swallow. There is a lengthy formulation and development process that drugs in a liquid formulation must go through prior to being prescribed for utilization by patients. This is because it is essential that the drug is evenly dispersed throughout the formulation. Liquid formulas frequently state on the label that the bottle needs to be shaken up before ingesting the medicine in order to ensure that the medication is evenly distributed and has not settled at the bottom of the bottle.

It is necessary for the design of liquid formulations to be a bit different than that of tablets so that the patient receives the proper amount of medication without imbibing large quantities of liquids. In addition, it must include an additive that masks the taste of the drug, which is frequently quite bitter and foul tasting. Normally, the average dose is not more than 5 millilitres for children, but adults usually need to take the medicine in a higher dosage. Normally the medication comes as a syrup, mixture or solution and includes sweeteners and flavouring agents to disguise the drug’s taste. Frequently fluids with a thicker viscosity are utilized so that they are not as likely to be spilled or inhaled in error. Additionally, it might have other ingredients that help the drug to stay in the liquid, which will ensure that the drug is going …

health, medicine

Health Benefits Of Krill Oil

The oil extracted from krill is highly nutritious; it contains omega-3 fatty acids, astaxanthin, as well as vitamins A, D, and E. The kinds of omega-3 fatty acids found in krill oil are primarily DHA and EPA, two highly beneficial nutrients. DHA has been known to lower blood sugar, reduce cholesterol, and ease inflammation. EPA, on the other hand, plays a critical role in the central nervous system and contributes to proper brain functioning.

Astaxanthin is a fairly unfamiliar nutrient which is actually a red-colored pigment, the pigment which is responsible for the color of the Krill. Astaxanthin is considered an antioxidant and contributes to good health in several ways, it helps regulate hormones, protect the brain, and ease premenstrual symptoms. The vitamins in krill oil are beneficial for obvious reasons, though the oil doesn’t provide very high quantities of these vitamins.

In addition to the specific benefits brought about by the nutrients covered thus far, krill oil has been shown to improve concentration and memory, as well as improve our overall mood. Furthermore, krill oil has a special ability to promote liver health, strengthen the immune system, and even cure many skin problems. Many of these desirable effects of taking krill oil are also attributed to fish oil, which explains the popularity which fish oil has also enjoyed. However for several reasons krill oil is much better than generic fish oil. For example, krill oil has larger amounts of antioxidants, higher EPA content, and a much longer shelf life.

Now that we’ve covered all the incredible benefits of krill oil, it’s worthwhile to reflect on some of the possible side effects as well. Although fatty acids are a nutritional powerhouse, consuming enough of them will often lead to diarrhea and indigestion. Krill oil should most definitely not be taken by anyone with shellfish allergies, or by anyone taking blood thinning medicine. For everyone else just remember that nothing is good in excess but taken moderately krill oil will contribute to your overall good health in all kinds of ways.…

fitness, health

Female Fitness Models – Starting Out

A good health and fitness diet plan can make your trip to become a female health and fitness model so much easier and thrilling.

Becoming a female fitness model should not only be thrilling, it should be a serious journey of personal discovery, “hard core” and exciting to boot.

Throughout the years perhaps thousands of women and girls have asked the three million dollar question “how can I become a fitness model”.

So What’s the first step?

You’ve been working out a very long time, people should understand that as with any serious goal all is achievable if you just get started.
So the most important step to become a health and fitness model is the determination to start.
First the bad news, there isn’t a one path to becoming a successful fitness model, however many fail to become a fitness model since they fail to seek out a proper workout structure.

How do I avoid this mistake?

One website that would be very useful for women who want to get lean or even become a model is www.leanmuscleforwomen.com – Rusty Moore has great resources and a bunch of common sense advice. More “Hard Core” info can be found at my site, HowToBecomeAFitnessModel.com just to name two.

Model or Fitness Model?

These days rather than becoming a model, more women prefer to become fitness models. Whether it’s your dream to become a health and fitness model and showcase in magazines or you would just like that lean feminine look you admire so much the Fitness model life style could be perfect for you.

Now Ladies Here’s the Rub!!

Getting started will be the hardest part, you know – it’s okay to fail but not okay never to get started. Make the commitment today and reap the benefits for life. Whats to lose, say you start and discover it’s not for you, not so bad, much worst to not know than fail trying. Good luck with your demons, you can do it and you can get started today. Just think of where you could be in six months, that’s only 180 days!!…