Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) is medical condition mostly caused by work related occupations and working environment, affecting patients’ muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments and nerves and developing over time. A community sample of 73 females and 32 males aged 85 and over underwent a standardised examination at home. Musculoskeletal pain was reported by 57% of those interviewed. A major restriction of joint movement range was frequent in the shoulder but uncommon in other joints. A shoulder disorder was found in 27% of subjects, rheumatoid arthritis in 1% and osteoarthritis (OA) of the hand, hip, and knee in five, seven, and 18% of subjects, respectively. Disability was frequent: a walking distance of < 500 m was found in 60% and ADL dependency in 40% of the group. Factors related to one or both of these disability measures included female gender, hip and knee OA, impaired vision, cognitive impairment and neurological disease(1).
Types of Musculo-Skeletal disorders in elder(2)
3. Rheumatoid Arthritis
4. Polymalagia Arthritis
5. Cervical myleopathy and spinal canal stenosis
7. Low back pain
I. Osteoarthritis (OA), a form of arthritis, is defined as a condition of
as a result of aging causes of wear and tear on a joint, affecting over 25 million people in the United States in alone.
D. Phytochemicals to prevent osteoarthritis
1. Epigallocatechin, including catechins, is a phytochemical of Flavan-3-ols, in the group of Flavonoids (polyphenols), found abundantly in green tea, St John wort, black Tea, carob flour, Fuji apples, etc.
a. Inflammatory effects
In the determination of the up-regulated expressions of IL-8 or PGE(2) in Streptococci or PAMP-stimulated HDPF were inhibited by catechins, (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). In TLR2 ligand-stimulated HDPF, found that catechins might be useful therapeutically as an anti-inflammatory modulator of dental pulpal inflammation, according to “Tea catechins reduce inflammatory reactions via mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in toll-like receptor 2 ligand-stimulated dental pulp cells” by Hirao K, Yumoto H, Nakanishi T, Mukai K, Takahashi K, Takegawa D, Matsuo T.(47)
b. Antiviral activities
In the observation of Catechin derivatives including (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) and green tea extract (GTE) and theirs inhibition of the activities of cloned human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-1 RT), duck hepatitis B virus replication complexes reverse transcriptase (DHBV RCs RT), herpes simplex virus 1 DNA polymerase (HSV-1 DNAP) and cow thymus DNA polymerase alpha (CT DNAP alpha, found that GCG exerts a mixed inhibition with respect to external template inducer poly (rA).oligo (dT) 12-18 and a noncompetitive inhibition with respect to substrate dTTP for HIV-1 RT. Bovine serum albumin significantly reduced the inhibitory effects of catechin analogues and GTE on HIV-1 RT. In tissue culture GTE inhibited the cytopathic effect of coxsackie B3 virus, but did not inhibit the cytopathic effects of HSV-1, HSV-2, influenza A or influenza B viruses, according to “[The inhibitory effects of catechin derivatives on the activities of human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase and DNA polymerases].[Article in …