fitness

The Overload Principle for Fitness: How Hard Should You Work Out?

The Principle of Overload asserts that you must gradually and systematically increase your fitness training load.  Overloading causes changes within your muscles as a direct result of the type of training you perform.  Because your body gets used to working out at a particular level, you must progressively increase your work load in order to continue to improve.

To apply the Principle of Overload to fitness programs, you can adjust some combination of intensity (how hard), frequency (how often), duration (how long), recovery (how much rest), and volume (total work) to achieve your desired results.  It is most important that you gradually increase your work load with a regimen of training activities that targets your goals.

Training at an intensity that varies between 60%-100% of your maximum effort is a guideline for how hard to work.   Planned training cycles that include light, moderate, and heavy periods offer variation within an adequate range of intensity.  Periodically testing your maximum efforts provides a basis for how much and in which ways you should increase training loads.

For cardio workouts, how hard you work is based on your maximum predicted heart rate.  The Karvonen formula or a calculator can estimate your target heart rate zone in beats per minute. As your body adapts to training at any particular level, you will have to work harder to stay within the zone.  You can pick up your pace, increase distance or time, or decrease rest time between training bouts in order to continue to make gains.

For strength, lift weights at 60-100% of your single maximum repetition (1 RM) for specific lifts (e.g., squat, bench press).  However, if you are not conditioned, testing 1 RM is not advisable nor is it feasible for all exercises.  One RM calculators offer a safer way to estimate the weight you can lift for a single repetition.

Another method to progressively overload for strength is to perform 10-15 repetitions of an exercise. Increase the weight load when you can complete 15 reps using good form through the full of motion.   Do not increase weight loads more than 10% per week.

What happens if you do not work hard enough?  You will make limited gains, progress more slowly, or simply maintain your fitness level.

What happens if you work too hard?  Your progress can be compromised if your training intensity is too high.  It is not necessary to work out until you are exhausted every day.  In time, you could experience the effects of overtraining.

The Recovery Principle and the Variation Principle work in concert with the Overload Principle.  To allow adequate recovery time, train 5-6 days per week for endurance and 3-4 days per week for strength. To prevent overtraining and to experience more rapid improvements, vary your workouts during each phase of training within a range that targets your goals.

How does the saying, No pain, no gain apply? Learn to distinguish between the “pain” of working hard and the “pain” of injuries. Overloading will result in normal training effects.  Muscles will burn or become sore and stiff.  You can continue to work through these effects of training. But you should work around muscle strains, joint sprains, and other structural injuries to allow them to heal.

The Overload Principle is a useful training tool, but your body’s response to your total training load supersedes general training guidelines. You can make good training decisions by listening to your body and trusting your instincts about how to apply training principles.

Sources

Fleck, S.J. & Kraemer, W.J. (1996). Periodization breakthrough! Ronkonkoma, NY: Advanced Research Press.

Hoeger, W.W.K & Hoeger, S.A. (2006). Principles and labs for fitness and wellness. (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thompson Wadsworth.

Martens, R. (2004). Successful coaching (3rd ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

McArdle, W.D., Katch, F.I., & Katch, V.L. (2000). Essentials of exercise physiology (2nd ed.). Baltimore: Lippincott, Williams, & Wilkins.

Powers, S.K., Dodd, S.L., & Noland, V.J. (2006). Total fitness and wellness (4th ed.). San Francisco: Pearson Education.